1) It CAN be argued that the “Little Horn” came out of one of the Four Winds into the near East in conquest of the four Hellenistic horns (the Seleucid Empire comprised the Eastern section of Alexander's Kingdom and comprised Babylonia, Persia, and Syria). HOWEVER: there is NO Gender Agreement between the “them” (masculine) in Daniel 8:9 and either the “Horns” or “Winds” (both “Feminine”) of Daniel 8:8 – so it it is not clear out of which the “Little Horn” comes.
2) Antiochus Epiphanes means “God Manifest” or “the Illustrious”. His Father, “Antiochus III” received the title “The Great” – but Antiochus only got his title because He changed his name to Epiphanes. Even his own people despised him and referred to him as “Antiochus Epimames” which means: “The MADMAN”. He was literally a “Crazy” little man; definitely a whimsical, cruel, “tyrant” – but hardly a “GREAT RULER” or Power!!! He NEVER enlarged his territory! In fact, his entire rule was spent in “servitude” to Rome. His Father, “Antiochus the Great”, had been DEFEATED by the Romans and was only able to keep the peace with them by paying a huge sum of money and by giving up part of his territory. As a pledge that he would keep this treaty he was forced to give “hostages” who were carried off to Rome – his Son, Antiochus Epiphanes, was one of those hostages!!! Antiochus was forever paying Tribute monies to Rome and was killed while trying to raise more tribute monies to pay to Rome! In Fact, Antiochus Epiphanes ruled ONLY because “Rome” let him!!!
3) There were 24 (some say 26, others 28) Seleucid Kings who Reigned from Seleucus I (Beginning 311BC) until Antiochus XIII (Ending 65BC). Antiochus IV Epiphanes was the 8th in line. He ruled from 175-164BC when he was killed. That means that he died 100 YEARS BEFORE the end of the reign of the Seleucid Kings – making it very difficult/Impossible for him to appear “in the latter period of their rule” (Dan. 8:23). This would also make him one of the Kings that made up the Four Horns – in other words, Antiochus Epiphanes would have to be ONE OF THE FOUR HORNS, and he certainly COULD NOT have “Come out of Himself”!!!
4) The phrase (or “Term”) “Little Horn” is only used in Daniel 7:8 and 8:9. Daniel uses the same exact references to the “Little Horn” in Daniel 8:9 as he does in Daniel 7:8 – we must conclude that Daniel is referring to the SAME “Little Horn” spoken of in Daniel 7:8 – which can clearly be identified as ROMAN – not Greecian, or Medo-Persian!
5) In Dan. 8:4 Medo-Persia is described as becoming “GREAT”. Cyrus was the king of Persia and he could definitely be describes as “GREAT”. In Dan. 8:8 GREECE is described as becoming “VERY GREAT”. And we would certainly describe “Alexander the Great” as being “VERY GREAT”! He had conquered most of the then known world in just under 8 years!!! Then..... in Dan. 8:9 we read that the “Little Horn” power would become “EXCEEDING GREAT”. Are we to believe that either the Seleucid division of Greece OR Antiochus Epiphanes was “EXCEEDING GREAT”?!!! …... Antiochus Epiphanes was NOT a “Cyrus” or an “Alexander the Great”!!! And his “kingdom” was certainly NOT anything compared to Medo-Persia or Greece!!! ROME fits the description of becoming “EXCEEDING GREAT” – Antiochus Epiphanes does NOT!!!
6) Daniel 8:23 tells us that this “Little Horn” Power would actually emerge from “the latter period of their rule” --that is, this “Power” would “Arise” and become truly powerful during this time. Rome was certainly NOT a formidable power during the reign of Alexander the Great. Only after his kingdom was divided into four competing territories did Rome rise to power (Note: Rome can be dated as the dominate ruling power from 168 BC [just a year After Antiochus's desecration of the Jewish Temple] when it defeated the Macedonian Empire [General “Cassander's” territory]. The dominoes then began to fall.). – eventually conquering and incorporating all of them by 30 BC (Macedonia incorporated by Rome in 168BC [Cassander]; Syria totally incorporated by 65BC [Seleucid]; Palestine incorporated 63BC [Ptolemy]; Egypt made a province of Rome in 30BC [also Ptolemy]). This is also what Daniel 8:9 describes the “Little Horn” as doing while it was “growing Exceeding Great”: The Little Horn “which grew exceeding great toward the south (Egypt), toward the east (Syria), and toward the Beautiful Land (Palestine). [NOTE: That BOTH the “South” and the “Beautiful Land” (Egypt and Palestine) were part of the PTOLEMAIC “Horn” – which would lend credence to the argument that the “Little Horn” would “grow out of” the Ptolemaic Horn, NOT the Seleucid Horn. ---- In other words: The “Little Horn” would become “Exceeding Great” as the Bible says “in the LATER PERIOD OF THEIR RULE”; that is, FOLLOWING the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom – or AFTER “it” was completely incorporated by Rome between 65-30BC.] This would completely rule out the “Little Horn” being “Antiochus Epiphanes”!!!
7) While Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated the Temple during his reign, there are several things that the Bible says the Little Horn would do that Antiochus NEVER DID. The Bible's real focus in regard to the Little Horn Power is its opposition to “the Prince of princes” [Jesus Christ] (Dan. 8:25).
8) Daniel 2 describes four Kingdoms (Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome) and then a time during which there would be no truly definable kingdom --- but one that would be a mixture (Iron mixed with Clay). It would still have its “Roman” influence but would NOT be the same Roman influence as was exhibited by the “Legs of Iron” (the Roman Empire which ended in 476AD). It would still be a “ROMAN” influence, but it would be the Roman influence described in Daniel 7 and 8 as the “Little Horn Power” – which would be a “RELIGEOUS Power” – one that would, according to Daniel 7:7; be “DIFFERENT from all the beasts before it” (it, the Little Horn, would be a religious /political power), that would have a “mouth uttering great boasts,” who would wage “war with the saints and overpower them”, --- one that would “speak out against the Most High and wear down the Saints, and [would] attempt to make alterations in times and laws.” Daniel 8:24,25 says this power would: “destroy mighty men and the holy people”, that it would: “cause deceit to succeed by his influence”, and that it would “corrupt many while they are at ease”, and finally, that it would “stand against the Prince of princes” (the Teachings of Jesus Christ). The “Little Horn” is described in (Dan 7:8) as “Uprooting” three of the first 10 horns “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.” These “Three Horns” (Kingdoms, were the Huruli [extinguished in 493 A.D.]; the Vandals [extinguished in 534 A.D.]; and the Ostrogoths [extinguished in 538 A.D.]. Now, OBVIOUSLY, Antiochus Epiphanes NEVER “uprooted” or wiped out any of these kingdoms – he wasn't even ALIVE at these times! Antiochus Epiphanes could NEVER be credited as having done all these things or having exerted such an influence!
9) The “Little Horn” of Daniel and the “Beast” of Revelation are the same thing and can be clearly identified using the Bible (see attached Bible “identifying” marks).
10) In Daniel 2:44 it says that “the God of Heaven … will crush and put an end” to this Kingdom. Verse 45 says that the “stone … cut without hands” will crush this final Kingdom. Daniel 7:26 says that the “judgment will sit” and “his dominions will be taken away, annihilated and destroyed forever”! In Daniel 8:25 we are told that this SAME POWER (spoken of in Daniel 2 & 7), – the “Little Horn” Power – “will be broken without human agency.” ALL of things won't happen until the very end of time. That means that this “Little Horn” Power, which would begin its existence AFTER the Greecian Empire and “grow exceeding great” in its opposition to the Christ and His true followers, WILL EXIST at the Second Coming of Christ! OBVIOUSLY, This CANNOT be referring to Antiochus Epiphanes!!!
11) The Roman Catholic Church commissioned TWO priests to come up with theories that would take the heat off them as being the “Little Horn” or “Beast” indicted in the Bible. One (Francisco Ribera, 1585AD) developed the “FUTURISTIC” model of Daniel and Revelation that said that ALL the PROPHECIES contained in the books of Daniel and Revelation were YET FUTURE! SECOND: (Luis de Alcasar) was responsible for the formation of the “Preterism” view, which states that everything in Daniel and Revelation are “in the PAST”. BOTH views, were instigated by the Church of ROME in order to take the heat off of themselves as being the “Little Horn” or “Beast” Power!!! It is the Preterist view that identified and led to the belief that “Antiochus Epiphanes” was the “Little Horn”. However, This view was NOT accepted by most of the “Reformers” (even though there are many today who accept it). It is interesting to note that MANY of the Reformers “UNDERSTOOD” and “IDENTIFIED” the PAPACY as the BEAST and the LITTLE HORN --- those Reformers included: Martin Luther, John Wycliff, John Wesley, Thomas Cranmer, Cotton Mathews, Roger Williams, John Knox, John Calvin, etc.
12) The LORD JESUS CHRIST Himself indicated that the “abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the Prophet” was yet Future to His day (see Mat. 24:15 & Mk. 13:14)!! Again, this could not possibly be referring to “Antiochus Epiphanes”!
While Antiochus Epiphanes may have “DESACRATED and DEFILED” the Temple in Jerusalem... He is NOT the “Little Horn” of Daniel!!! Daniel is NOT speaking of the “EARTHLY” temple!!! He is speaking of the “HEAVENLY” one! So, the “Little Horn” must be doing damage to to HEAVENLY TEMPLE (our understanding of GOD, distorting and substituting TRUTHS, etc.). Antiochus Epiphanes NEVER did any of that!!! Think about it!!! How can anyone take the BIBLICAL evidence, the HISTORICAL evidence, and the HEAVENLY evidence... and EVER come to the conclusion the “little man”, Antiochus Epiphanes, could possibly be the “Little Horn” of Daniel? Couldn't we apply the same thing to “Titus” when he destroyed Jerusalem, it's Temple, and carried away all of it's artifacts? The thing the WE need to do is to UNDERSTAND when the Bible is speaking of a LITERAL happening (here on EARTH) and when it is speaking “SPIRITUALY” (in Heaven). SOMETIMES the two are “INTERELATED” but carry different meanings. If WE fail to understand the difference... We will not only come to the wrong conclusions, we will also MISS the whole point!!! The FACT of the matter is that ALL the BIBLICAL EVIDENCE points to the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH as the “Little Horn”/”Beast” Power! – NOT “Antiochus Epiphanes!
Identifying Marks of the
LITTLE HORN & the BEAST POWER
1. Would come up from the ten horns in Europe. [Dan.7:8]
2. Would come up after them. [Dan. 7:24].
3. Would uproot three horns (kingdoms – the Huruli, Ostrogoths, & Vandals). [Dan. 7:8,24].
4. Would be different from other kingdoms (a “Religio-Political” Power: it would receive worship and would exercise political power). [Dan. 7:24 & Revelation 13:3,4,8].
5. Would be the leading power. [Dan. 7:20].
6. “Dragon” would give the Beast his “seat and authority.” [Rev. 13:2]. Note: “Dragon” often refers to Satan but it also refers to Political Rome – see Rev. 12:4,9; Ezekiel 29:2-4; and Mat. 2:13-16.
7. Would sit on “seven mountains.” [Rev. 17:9]. There is a place today that sits on seven hills.
8. Would speak great words against God. [Dan. 7:25; Dan. 8: ; Rev. 13:1,5,6]. Please note Bible definitions of “Blasphemy” in Mark 2:7 & John 10:33.
9. Would make war on the Saints and would be identified in the Scriptures as the power that would persecute them for “a time, times, and a dividing of times (1260 years). [Dan 7:25 & Rev. 13:7; Rev. 12:13-17].
10. Would think to change God’s Law. [Dan. 7:25].
11. Would rule for 1260 years before receive a “deadly” wound that would “heal.” [Dan. 7:25; Rev. 12:6; Rev. 13:5]. Note: 3 ½ Times, 42 months, and 1260 days – ALL equal 1260 years. Hint: Look at Roman History and see if you don’t find some significant events taking place in 538AD and in 1798AD. Notice how many years this time period spans.
12. Would receive a “deadly wound” that would “heal.” [Rev. 13:3].
13. Its “Dominion” would be taken away and will be “utterly destroyed” – without hands (will be the work of God). [Dan. 2:45; Dan. 7:25].
14. This power is also called the “Mother of Harlots” and is clothed in scarlet and purple. There is a religious power today that claims to be the “Mother Church” and has colors of scarlet and purple.
Who is the Little Horn and the Beast? There is only ONE Religio/Political power that fits all these identifying marks and that is the Roman Catholic Church (Papacy)!